Restrained Circular Section - Torsional Loading
Notation and Units
Metric and Imperial Units
The above formulas may be used with both imperial and metric units. As with all calculations care must be taken to keep consistent units throughout with examples of units which should be adopted listed below:
- L = length under consideration, in or mm
- G = shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, psi or MPa
- J = polar moment of inertia, in4 or mm4
- T = applied or resulting torsion, lb.in or Nmm
- θ = angle of twist, degrees
- τ = shear stress, psi or MPa
- r = radial distance from centre to point of interest, in or mm
- A.F. Hughes, D.C. Iles, A.S. Malik. Design of Steel Beams in Torsion. UK. 2011. Print.
- Author Unknown. (n.d.). Beams subject to bending and torsion [PDF file]. Retrieved from http://www.steel-insdag.org/TeachingMaterial/Chapter17.pdf
- G.E. Maddux, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. Strees Analysis Manual. U.S. 1970. Print.