Composite Member - Axial Loading

More Forces

Composite Member with Axial Loading

Notation and Units

Metric and Imperial Units

The above formulas may be used with both imperial and metric units. As with all calculations care must be taken to keep consistent units throughout with examples of units which should be adopted listed below:


  • A = area, in4 or mm4
  • E = modulus of elasticity, psi or MPa
  • F = resultant force, lbf or N
  • P = applied force, lbf, N

Additional Resources

  1. G. Vasdravellis, B. Uy, E.L. Tan, B. Kirkland. Behaviour and Design of Composite Beams Subjected to Negative Bending and Compression. Sydney, Australia. 2012. Published in "Journal of Constructional Steel Research".
  2. S.H. Kim, S.Y. Seo, C.G. Cho. Effect of Axial Compression in the Basement Composite Bea Controlled by Flexure. Chungju, Korea. 2013. Print.