Metals/Alloys - Density

More Properties

Assumptions and Limitations

New materials are being developed every day and new alloys are no exception. Whilst the table below can be used as a general guideline to some of the physical properties of commonly encountered metals and alloys in the structural engineering world it is advisable to confirm details with the supplier or manufacturer.


The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density of a substance is its mass per unit volume (or the relationship between the mass of the substance and how much space it takes up). A material that is light but has a large volume such as styrofoam has a low density while a material that is heavy and takes up less room such as steel has a high density. The symbol most often used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho), although the Latin letter D can also be used.

Material Material Density, Ρ
Imperial Units (lb/ft³) Metric Units (kg/m³)
min. max. min. max.

Additional Resources

  1. Aerospace Specification Metals (ASM). (2019). AISI Type 304 stainless steel AISI type. Retrieved from
  2. Aerospace Specification Metals (ASM). (2019). AISI Type 304 stainless steel, annealed sheet. Retrieved from
  3. AmBrSoft. (2014, October 23). Materials density table. Retrieved from
  4. Bell, T. (2018, September 19). Physical properties of beryllium copper [blog article]. The Balance. Retrieved from
  5. Chemistry Learner. (2019). Aluminum bronze. (Marmetal Industries LLC: Author). Retrieved from
  6. Lenntech. (2019). Iron-Fe. Retrieved from
  7. Lenntech. (2019). Cadmium – Cd. Retrieved from
  8. Lenntech. (2019). Chromium- Cr. Retrieved from
  9. Lenntech. (2019). Cobalt – Co. Retrieved from
  10. Lenntech. (2019). Platinum-Pt. Retrieved from
  11. Materion Corporation. (n.d.). A guide to designing and fabricating with beryllium [PDF file]. Retrieved from
  12. P.A. McQuay, V.K. Sikka. Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001. Print.
  13. T. Iida, R.I.L. Guthrie. The Physical Properties of Liquid Metals. Osaka University, McGill University. 1993. Print.